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Educational school strategies
Mental Health: Infants and Babies
Children and Television
Children and Movies
Book covers in this column are Amazon-linked (off-site). Unless otherwise stated, all text links are to on-site AYCNP pages.
How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence, by Karen E. Dill
It's a common belief that the stories we encounter through mass media--whether in video games, action movies, or political comedy skits on Saturday Night Live--are just entertaining fantasies that have no tangible impact on our everyday lives, attitudes, and choices. Not so, says Karen Dill in this lively and provocative book. As much as we may want to deny it, the images, sounds, and narratives that bombard us daily have ample power to alter our realities.
Dill, the author of the single-most-cited study on the effects of video-game violence, draws on extensive research in social psychology to show not only the myriad ways--for good and ill--that media influence us, but also why we resist believing they do. Vibrantly written and packed with eye-opening examples from everyday life, her wide-ranging analysis encompasses everything from gender and racial stereotyping to social identity, domestic violence, and presidential politics.
She discusses the ways that super-thin models and actresses have altered women's self-images, dissects the manipulative strategies of advertising aimed at children and medical consumers.
In a media-saturated society, Dill argues, understanding precisely how these powerful forces affect us and learning how to deal with them are vital to the very way we function as citizens. How Fantasy Becomes Reality shows what we can do to move from the passenger's seat to the driver's seat as media consumers. (from the publisher)
The Power of Movies: How Screen and Mind Interact, by Colin McGinn
How is watching a movie similar to dreaming? What goes on in our minds when we become absorbed in a movie? How does looking “into” a movie screen allow us to experience the thoughts and feelings of a movie’s characters? These and related questions are at the heart of The Power of Movies, a thoughtful, invigorating, and remarkably accessible book about a phenomenon seemingly beyond reach of our understanding. Colin McGinn – "an ingenious philosopher who thinks like a laser and writes like a dream," according to Steven Pinker–enhances our understanding of both movies and ourselves in this book of rare and refreshing insight.
Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions (SUNY Series in the Sociology of Emotions). (1990). By Theodore D. Kemper (Editor)
Silent Movies: The Birth of Film and the Triumph of Movie Culture 1st Edition. (2007). By Peter Kobel
Peter Kobel uses what Publisher's Weekly refers to as "evocative images" of pictures from the Silent Film era as a backdrop to examine the film industry during the years 1893 through 1927. He examines the films by genre rather than chronologically, with such genres as horror, westerns, and comedy categorized. while paying homage to the superb work of art directors, cinematographers and directors.
American film stars of the silent era are likened to royalty, and Kobel provides details on the campaigns that resulted in film stars such as
the highly sexual actress Theda Bara and turn of the century sex idol Rudolph Valentino.
An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915-1928 (History of the American Cinema). (1994). By Richard Koszarski
Musser teaches film studies at NYU and Columbia. He develops a theme centering on the first 12 years of American cinema, from 1895 on. were He develops the precursors of film such as the magic lantern, the stereopticon, the zoopraxiscope, and the phasmatrope. Musser focuses on the film industry rather the theme of film as an art form.
Twenty-First Century Bollywood (Routledge Contemporary South Asia Series). (2015). By Ajay Gehlawat
As Bollywood entered the 21st century, shifts in its content and form can be noted, influenced by and influencing Indian culture. Previous norms and taboos are breached, changes in the portrayal of male and female sexuality, including sex scenes and homosexuality are now a regular feature in Bollywood. The changing nature of the song and dance sequence in Bollywood movies is also developed, along with other significant details.
Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. (2001). By Vijay Mishra
Vijay Mishra is a part of the Indian diaspora, a professor of English and Comparative Literature at Australia's Murdoch University. He develops the theme of Indian film by drawing on postcolonial and film theory. Some of the sub-themes in In Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire are Hindu epics, the relegation of female actors to supporting roles, film representations of the Indian diaspora, and sexual subtexts. The book is described as "a scholarly and hip tribute to Indian cinema in all its glory, folly and abundance." The book is illustrated with 38 black and white photos.
"Mommy, I'm Scared": How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them, by Joanne Cantor PhD
Nightmares, anxiety, intense fear, and physical pain are typical reactions that children have to scary TV and movies. This is a very important work which discusses how scary TV and movies can affect children. Cantor is from the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg Center, offering ways to help children work through their fears, including distracting, desensitizing, and reasoning, and she analyzes movie ratings (Jaws, for example, is PG) and why we are attracted to violence in movies and television. This is an excellent addition to public libraries.
Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (Routledge Communication Series), by
Jennings Bryant, Mary Beth Oliver
"Media Effects is both exciting and relevant to current studies of the impact and scope of mass media." —Contemporary Psychology APA REVIEW OF BOOKS
Remotely Controlled: How Television is Damaging Our Lives, by Aric Sigman
How television can contribute to depression, ADHD and a host of other health and mental health issues. Painlessly training yourself and your children in a positive way, without television.
Living Without the Screen: Causes and Consequences of Life without Television (Lea's Communication), by Marina Kromar
A look into the whys and hows of millions of Americans who do without television or a television lifestyle for one reason or another.
Classical Film Violence: Designing and Regulating Brutality in Hollywood Cinema 1930-1968. (2003). By Stephen Prince
Classical Film Violence: Designing and Regulating Brutality in Hollywood Cinema, 1930-1968
A thorough academic sociological study of violence and horror in classic Hollywood provides insights into artistic and non-artistic violence in films, and the history of films in the U.S. and Europe.
Media Violence and its Effect on Aggression: Assessing the Scientific Evidence, by Jonathan L. Freedman
Jonathan L. Freedman is Professor of Psychology at the University of Toronto.
Do The Gods Wear Capes?: Spirituality, Fantasy, and Superheroes (New Directions In Religion & Literature), by Ben Saunders
According to Ben Saunders, the appeal of the superhero is fundamentally metaphysical - even spiritual - in nature. In chapter-length analyses of the early comic book adventures of Superman, Wonder Woman, Spider-Man, and Iron-Man, Saunders explores a number of complex philosophical and theological issues.
Ben Saunders is Associate Professor of English at the University of Oregon. He is author of Desiring Donne: Poetry, Sexuality, Interpretation (Harvard University Press, 2006) and co-editor, with Roger Beebe and Denise Fulbrook, of Rock Over the Edge: Essays in Popular Music Culture (Duke University Press, 2002).
The Psychology of Superheroes: An Unauthorized Exploration (Psychology of Popular Culture), by Robin S. Rosenberg, Jennifer Canzoneri
Unmasking superhuman abilities and double lives, this analysis showcases nearly two dozen psychologists as their essays explore the minds of pop culture’s most intriguing and daring superheroes, including Spider-Man, Batman, Superman, and the X-Men.
Exposing the inner thoughts that these reclusive heroes would only dare share with trained professionals, heady experts give detailed psychoanalyses of what makes specific superheroes tick while answering such questions as Why do superheroes choose to be superheroes? Why is there so much prejudice against the X-Men mutants? What makes Spider-Man so altruistic? and Why are supervillains so aggressive? Additionally, the essays tackle why superheroes have such an enduring effect on American culture.
Overcoming ADHD Without Medication: A Parent and Educator's Guidebook, by the AYCNP
124 pages - How parents can help their children overcome symptoms of ADHD, how the disorder can be brought into remission, through lifestyle changes and educational remediation. Well-references, index, extensive bibliography.
Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Public Policy , by Craig A. Anderson, Douglas A. Gentile, Katherine E. Buckley
Violent video games are successfully marketed to and easily obtained by children and adolescents. Even the U.S. government distributes one such game, America's Army, through both the internet and its recruiting offices. Is there any scientific evidence to support the claims that violent games contribute to aggressive and violent behavior?
Anderson, Gentile, and Buckley first present an overview of empirical research on the effects of violent video games, and then add to this literature three new studies that fill the most important gaps. They update the traditional General Aggression Model to focus on both developmental processes and how media-violence exposure can increase the likelihood of aggressive and violent behavior in both short- and long-term contexts.
Violent Video Game Effects on Children and Adolescents also reviews the history of these games' explosive growth, and explores the public policy options for controlling their distribution. As the first book to unite empirical research on and public policy options for violent video games. This is a valuable reference for researchers.
Cinderella Ate My Daughter: Dispatches from the Front Lines of the New Girlie-Girl Culture. (2012).
by Peggy Orenstein
Orenstein's witty insights of a mother's closer look at girly culture from Cinderella and Disney Princesses that evolves into "Oops I did it again". What is a mother to do?
Planet Earth, BBC Video
Choosing nature videos rather than violent or horror/scary movies, provides you with excellent entertainment, and is something positive for your child and family.
This is one of the best nature videos ever made. Spectacular footage from all over the world. Rare footage, exciting. All in the family can learn and enjoy. 11 Part Series. This is the complete version. We enjoyed it thoroughly!
365 TV-Free Activities You Can Do With Your Child: Plus 50 All-New Bonus Activities by Steven J. Bennett, Ruth Bennett
Great find in a first-grade classroom.
365 Ways to Unplug Your Kids (for awhile anyway): How to have fun without TV or computer by Ted Burbank
This book is designed to be used as a source of ideas and a listing of choices of things to do instead of watching TV or playing computer and video games. Activities segregated into twenty two categories for convenience and ease of use.
|Page updated: December 31, 2015
|The Psychological Affect of Movies
Enter a fantasy zone of pleasure, excitement, and emotional release, the world of films and movies for entertainment. Whether films create an emotional escape through action, tension, suspense, horror, or captivate our attention with action violence, sexual titillation, or raucous comedy, Hollywood, 21st century Tinsletown, the silver screen, moviedom is a retreat, an escape, and at times an intellectually fulfilling experience.
We may leave watching a movie feeling as if we have been enlightened, challenged, or confused, with our values, beliefs, social framework turned inside out, both emotionally, intellectually or even spiritually.
"I believe that people have the capacity to consciously reflect on movies and bring parts of the films (images, lines of dialogue, characters, etc.) inside us."
Skip Dine Young Ph.D., author of Psychology at the Movies.
History of movies in the United States and world
G-Rated Movies and Children
Horror Movies, Adults and Children
Bollywood and India's passion for movies
Positive Activities and Art for Children
Positive Films for Children and Adults
Movies can make a deep psychological, even spiritual impact on the viewer. One of the most enduring series of films developed to date, Star Wars, was designed by producer George Lucas with captivating spiritual sub-themes revolving around the struggle between good and evil.
According to Lucas, part of his purpose in creating Star Wars was to move young people to think about the deeper questions of life. Lucas' own spiritual persuasions of Protestant Christianity and Buddhism are reflected in the characters and sub-themes of the original Star Wars movie (1977). One viewer of the 1977 Star Wars film states that he thought about the spiritual themes of Star Wars for weeks after first seeing the film as a teen.
History of the development of films and movies in the United States
Modern technology gave birth to the movie history in a West Orange, New Jersey in Thomas Edison Studios. Edison first featured his films publicly in 1894, and in 1896, he had produced the first story movie, "The Kiss" which both shocked and bonded audiences to motion pictures as a way of life (Classic Movie Gab. 2010, April 11).
The development of photography in the 1800s led to the gradual introduction of moving picture primitive at first, the technology would leap from and jump ocean borders from the U.S. to France and Britain.
Prior to the development of photography and movies, and before baseball became a popular sport in the United States (the "national pastime became such during and after the civil war), drawing was a way of life for most children and young adults. The average child and teen during the early to mid-1800s had a skill in drawing which was close to being professional by today's standards. Because you couldn't yet take a photograph and because there were so few serious distractions, pianos in the parlor as well as drawing and art were very common pastimes in the United States and Europe.
Because photography produces a lifelike replica, and as its commercial appeal grew, it displaced drawing as a pastime. Movies furthered that trend, and baseball filled up the free-time of millions of children, fathers and adolescents that used to be spent in drawing or, especially for females, playing piano.
Edison Studios first real movie, the "Widow's Kiss" featured the first passionate kiss ever seen on screen. They kissed, and kissed, and kissed.... Nothing like that had ever been seen before by audiences. At first there was protest. However, once the initial shock subsided, the passionate kiss remained a part of films from that early date in 1896, through the Silent Films era, and into the Hollywood era, on until today.
Passionate kissing in film, such as in Dances With Wolves
, My Big Fat Greek Wedding
, even children-oriented movies like Big
(1988), with Tom Hanks, where Hanks as man-boy undresses his soon to be sex-partner to her underwear came to be accepted as a normal part of family entertainment. The protesters of 1896 quieted and the passionate kiss remained forever a standard draw for Hollywood films.
Kissing and love making in movies elicits emotions from the viewer. In the book Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions
author Norman K. Denzin of the Institute of Communications Research at the University of Illinois notes that viewers watching kissing and love scenes sometimes view themselves as participants rather than spectators.
|Greta Garbo and John Gilbert starred in five films together from 1926 to 1933: "Flesh And The Devil" in 1926, "Love" in 1927, "A Woman Of Affairs" in 1928, "A Man's Man" in 1929, and "Queen Christina" in 1933. They had an on and off real-life relationship during that time period.
Movies can arouse emotions which lead to behaviors in imitation of or in response to the desire evoked by the movie.
Watching a love scene in a 1933 movie, one viewer recalls, "When we left" seeing Greta Garbo or Clara Bow "I'd go home and dream about them". After one show with his "girl", "we left the show in a daze. We talked about that picture for two or three weeks. We would make love to each other like the actors in the film did. (Blumer, 1933)."
A female college student said that the "loving making" in Classic Hollywood films "sets up a fantasy love scene in which I am the heroin." "It decidedly makes me want to be kissed and fondled", and therefore influenced her actions with young men she dated (Kemper, T. 1990).
Movie History: First Movie With a Plot - Violence in Movies
While movies prior to 1903 featured short stories, the first movie with a real plot was produced by Edison Studios in 1903, "The Great Train Robbery", which, true to its theme, included robbery and in the end a bloody massacre. It concludes with a bandit pointing his gun at the camera (the audience) (Prince, S. 2003. p.24). It is considered to be the root of violent movies in the 20th century. Thousands of movies were turned out by scores of movie studios in the United States, France and Britain from 1897 through 1914 on all imaginable themes and styles.
Do movies affect our mood, judgments, worldview, or way of thinking?
A study by Joseph P. Forgas and Stephanie Moylan of the University of New South Wales explored that question, considering four angles:
political judgments, expectations about the future, judgments of responsibility and guilt, and quality-of-life judgments.
Their study found that movies do significantly affect viewpoint and mood based on the affective quality or mood promoted by the film. In cases where the film was optimistic or happy, judgments of the viewer afterwards on these four life-viewpoints were generally positive. When viewers watched a sad or aggressive film, their mood and judgment biases were generally negative.
Interestingly, these results proved to be consistent regardless of the demographic background of those interviewed, suggesting that the phenomenon is universal rather than isolated to specific social constructs (Forgas, Moylan. 1987, December).
Horror movies are as old as movies themselves, the first coming shortly after Edison's foray into the realm of sexual titillation, violence and film. Horror movies are described as "unsettling" movies, movies that endeavor to elicit response of fear, disgust, repugnance and horror from the viewer. Darkness is the backdrop and terror the emotion.
In 1896 early cinematographer Georges Mèliès produced a short film entitled The House of the Devil (Le Manoir du Diable), featuring a bat that flies into a castle, transforming into Mephistopheles, a blood-sucking vampire. A successive film in 1898 by Mèliès was entitled "The Cave of Demons" (La Caverne Maudite). Mèliès went on to produce some 500 films, giving audiences an exciting, spine-tingling glimpse of the world of devils, demons, and the macabre, albeit within the safe hands of the movie theater armrests.
Frankenstein, a novel from Mary Shelly in 1818, became the first Frankenstein movie and was produced by Edison Studios in the Bronx in 1910. The Silent era saw several adaptations of this theme, including "Life Without Soul", a sequel by Edison Studios. The most famous adaptation of the film was in 1931 by Universal Studios featuring Boris Karloff as the monster. "Frankenstein (1931) represented a significant escalation of screen violence" states Stephen Prince in Classical Film Violence (Prince. 2003. p.53), and in the same work horror historian David Skal is referenced as marking the "horror film" of 1931 as "the most lasting and influential invention" of that time period.
Beyond the violence, Frankentstein's opening scene featured stealing a body from a graveyard, with tools to saw apart the corpse. The intention is the draw in the audience with this macabre scene, and illicit a horrific response. While Frankenstein appears tame to us hardened movie veterans over 80 years later, for audiences of that time period, it hit a nerve beyond anything they had seen previously.
In the 1930s and 40s there were approximately eight Frankenstein-themed movies, and from 1957 to 1974 seven. Frankenstein remains a popular and enduring theme in television, cartoons films, comedies, and parodies until this day.
"Horror movies brought a new level of sadistic violence to popular culture."
Stephen Prince in Classical Film Violence (2003)
One of the other famous early horror movies was produced prior to World War I in 1913 by German filmmakers and featured the theme of the Jewish bad-good monster legend "Der Golem." Golem was a solidly built clay man that was created to save the ghetto. However, when his job is accomplished, he refuses to cease existing, runs amok, eventually to be defeated by a little girl. A sequel was produced in 1920.
The Cabinet of Dr Caligari was an early horror film created in 1919, and is dubbed "the grandaddy of all horror films", depicted puppet humans controlled by a sadistic madman (Wilson, K.).
Vampire movies evolved into their present familiar form by 1922 in Germany, with "Nosferatu", with the grotesque Max Schreck, representing the Count Orlok of Transylvanian history and legend, becoming the most frightening vampire and vampire film to date, curling his long fingernails around the limbs of a series of hapless victims (Bullen, A.).
The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1923 starred Lon Chaney, the first American horror-film movie star. Universal Studios produced the most successful horror movie production company, and in the 1930s it iconized the American horror movie genre, with "Frankenstein" at the forefront (1931), "Dracula" coming in a close second (1931), and a menacing come-to-life "Mummy" to round off the threesome (1932).
The 1960s brought a new type of horror movie to the screen, that of reprehensible deeds developed in a menacing plot, with a bloody sprinkling of violence and terror. "Peeping Tom" by Michael Powell, and Alfred Hitchock style of psychological thrill, film evil, capsulated in films such as "Psycho", spawned the psychological thrillers, Hitchcock's claim to fame during the 1960s.
Hitchcock delighted in building suspense, presenting impossible choices, hiding the true nature of characters, deliberately attempting to capture and twist the mind of the audience, even as he was twisting the minds of his characters.
Flasafia, Khorashabd and Khorashadc in the article "Psychological Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's Movies" state that "Hitchcock provides a simulated situation on the foundation of meticulous arousal for his audiences" and that Hitchcock elicits both "provocation and anxiety to excite the audiences." The state of arousal elicited from Hitchcock films results in "attention and concentration" while viewing the film. In this manner, Hitchcock is able to "dominate" "the human psyche, and imparts his message to them. Whatever the message is, it goes through the people's unconscious via identification."
Hitchcock successfully hid the true evil nature of well-developed and likable characters, until the last possible moment, created a tension by a technique similar to putting a glass of water in front of a thirsty man, just out of the reach of his fingers, allowing him to strain to grope for the water, while the audience looks on trying to strain along to help the victim, but unable physically to do so.
There may be evidence that the memories and emotions of watching a Hitchcock movie, for example, may go beyond the present. Of Hitchcock's The Birds one viewer said, "the movie has instilled a permanent fear in me." The viewer was a hunter, and the movie created a fear in him of touching a bird that he had shot. Another viewer talks about her "phobia of taking a shower" attributing it to viewing the movie Psycho; five years later she stills turns her head around the shower curtain in fear of the imminent knife of death (Prince, S. p.65).
The 1970s saw the birth of truly demonic movies such as "The Exorcist" (1973) and "The Omen" (1976), preceded by "Rosemary's Baby" in the 1960s. "Jaws" in 1975 was a horror movie, directed by Steven Spielberg, which adults and children could enjoy together, with a happy ending as the monster-shark is finally destroyed against-all-odds by a an average-guy hero who blows him to bits with a rifle and scuba tank turned bomb.
|Alfred Hitchcock was a master of suspense. A "Psychological Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's Movies" states that he elicits "provocation" and "anxiety", which results in capturing the audience's "attention and concentration" when viewing his films. Some of the most memorable scenes in Hitchcock films leave deeply embedded memories in the human psyche.
Some of the psychological elements of "Jaws" that made it such a memorable film were:
1. the enemy you cannot see (hidden in the dark waters that we frequent in the summer)
Suspense and terror in the movie Jaws made it a memorable and riveting film, one that hits close to home for anyone who swims in the ocean.
2. the realism --a real sea creature is the killer; the event actually took place in Matwan Creek, New Jersey in 1916 when four people were killed over a period of 12 days (Blake, S.).
3. The unforgettable pulsing score of the film's described as "sinister, simple phrasing" creating a mode of fear and suspense.
4. There is only one enemy, the enemy is 100% evil and shows mercy to no one. The good guys are sitting ducks.
5. Jaws is in his element, we are out of our element (BBC Radio: Natural Histories).
Mainstream Hollywood produced exciting disaster/horror movies in the 1970s such as The Towering Inferno (1974), which proved to be premoniscent to the actual towering inferno which occurred on September 11, 2001 when 3,000 were killed in the World Trade Center bombing in downtown New York. (The Twin Towers were actually completed (April 1973) around the time of the filming of the Towering Inferno).
The 1980s brought horror movies popular with teens and children such as "Halloween", "Friday the 13th", and "A Nightmare on Elm Street", "Chainsaw Massacre" films, which have had broad appeal among young people and children until this day. Most children, in fact, some as young as kindergarten and preschool, in the inner cities but most likely across the board, indulge in horror movies of this type.
Walt Disney actually introduced horror movies to children. A film-buff himself, one of his first flicks was a horror-spoof of dancing skeletons (1929) "The Skeleton Dance", a Silly Symphonies animated short, voted one of the 50 Greatest Cartoons of all time by the animation industry in 1994.
A clip from the movie-short was later used for a movie with Mickey Mouse, "Haunted House", in which Mickey, sheltered in the haunted house, is forced to play music for the dancing skeletons. Bambi (1942) is listed by Time Magazine as one of the top 25 Horror Movies of all time (off-site).
Other Disney movies such as "The Little Mermaid" and "Sleeping Beauty" feature terrifying scenes or scenes of spirit-horror and violence. Disney simply took a genre of film-making which had been developed for decades and incorporated these elements into his children's cartoons and animated fairy tale versions for marketing to children.
Why Horror Movies are So Appealing
Why are horror movies of such broad appeal? The themes of our nightmares, the psychological thrillers and terror, the high level of focus, raise the dopamine level of our brains, providing a type of pleasure; our minds are riveted, our attention is captured, albeit through the our basest instincts, and it forces us towards undivided attention.
We escape the world around us completely, and for 1 1/2 hours, nothing else matters. We can twist and squirm in our seats, feel scared, afraid, terrorized, but remain in perfect safety at the same time, in the low risk zones of a comfortable, air-conditioned movie theater, or our own living rooms.
Horror movies and the characters therein, are etched upon our conscious and subconscious. While watching the horror movie, our fear level is raised, our sense of revulsion of the demonic is captivated, and at the same time the inner fascination with the idea that it somehow might have a basis in reality, absorbs our imagination.
We can contemplate and absorb the macabre, gently sucking on soda and indulging in popcorn, putting ourselves in dire danger, and we walk away feeling as if we accomplished something brave and daring.
Do horror and violent movies result in like or violent acts from impressionable viewers? Film critic Astrid Bullen argues "no". "Horror films actually have the opposite effect on normal people — sick minds will commit atrocities anyway. Watching horror films lets us encounter our secret fears, share them with other viewers, and eliminate the terror by meeting it head-on."
Stephen Prince in the book Classical Film Violence: Designing and Regulating Brutality in Hollywood Cinema, 1930-1968 presents anecdotal evidence that violent movies are imitated in acts of violence by otherwise "normal" people. Reasons for watching movies differ from person to person, and the effect of films on individuals also differs. However Prince refers to one study of movies' effects on 43,000 persons concluding "The consensus among researchers in this area...some viewers...behave aggressively" as as direct result of watching violent movies, "is so strong" that it is indisputable (Prince. S. p.281).
Hollywood and India Bollywood Movies
What is Bollywood? BBC News explains that Bollywood is the nickname given to the Indian film industry, a play on the word Hollywood. "B" for Bombay, now Mumbai, capital of the India film industry. Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance notes that "Bollywood movies and their signature song-and-dance spectacles are an aesthetic familiar to people around the world."
Anthropologist and India film expert Tejaswini Ganti describes Bollywood as the "dominant global term to refer to the prolific Hindi language film industry in Bombay" (Mumbai as of 1995). Typical Bollywood movies are noted for "music, dance routines, melodrama, lavish production values and an emphasis on stars and spectacle."
Classic Hollywood and Bollywood were twins and today's Bollywood film industry pumps out 150-200 highly developed feature movies per year. (Because these movies are then translated into 20 Indian languages, the total output of films produced by Indian film industry reaches between 800-1000 films per year). This compares with about 500 Hollywood movies released annually.
Bollywood movies are extremely visual and musical, often filmed against backdrops of breathtaking Himalayan mountains, or in such exotic places as Kashmir or Darjeeling--like the spicy cuisine of India renown, they are a visual feast.
While Bollywood generically refers to the India film industry, it refers more specifically to a specific style of film-making, aimed at attracting huge box office success. Therefore, we need to delineate between Bollywood style movies with other more serious forms of India cinema.
New York Times movie critic Vaibhav Sharma refers to Bollywood as "traditionally escapist fare", while differentiating Bollywood with what appears to be a "fresh crop of filmmakers is ushering Indian movies in a new direction." That direction often pits socially traditional conservative India values with a modern generation influenced by the West, many of whom have tasted life away from India and family restrictions.
In the book Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema anthropologist Tejaswini Ganti explains that many of the early popular movies of Indian cinema developed Hindu religious mythological themes, a tradition that has continued through recent decades. While mythological films are no longer prolifically produced today, the tradition persists in Indian television, where serials based on themes are still very popular.
While a Hollywood love film might devote a large part of the film to engaging dialogue before the romance is cinched, Bollywood often bypasses elaborate dialogue in favor of a gradual love-progression in four or five developing dance scenes, taking the couple from mildly interested to confirmed lovers.
India Hindu culture has always embraced an underlying sensuality, with sensual gods such as Krishna, who came down from the heavens and cohabited with a virtual harem of women, and stone temple reliefs with sculptures from Hindu legends featuring exaggerated female body parts that accentuated the sexuality of women.
While the Asian-Indian culture is typically modest about its sexuality, Bollywood movies from the 1960s and as early as its silent movie predecessors, have featured the sensual and provocative dance numbers that have become the hallmark of modern Bollywood productions.
The sexuality of Bollywood has historically been low-key, reflecting taboos of the religious culture: the frisky government official feeling up the knee of the heroin, low-key brothels, courtesans, and prostitution as sub-themes amidst larger plots, provocative dancing, and love triangles.
In the earlier days of Indian film making the Indian tradition of the courtesan became a enchanting theme of Indian cinema, India having a longstanding fascination with this profession. The courtesan in early Indian cinema, while sexual, was never allowed to be explicit. Modern Bollywood still develops the courtesan as a character in its films, and many Indian female film stars have made their dramatic entrance into Bollywood playing that role.
Another female role in Bollywood film, the vamp, unlike the vamps of classic Hollywood film, was clearly dilineated from the chaste heroin. In today's Bollywood, however, the role of the vamp and heroin are blurred, where the heroin is allowed to express her sexuality beyond the traditional social norms.
In the past seven to ten years culturally conservative standards where even on-screen kissing was taboo, have been gradually supplanted by a more-advert sexuality where unrated Bollywood movies feature lovemaking scenes straddle a boundary beyond that of an explicit R-rated American film.
While women have always been objectified in Hollywood, from the days of Theda Bara and Clara Bow in early American silent movies through Greta Garbo, Bridget Bardot, Marilyn Monroe, and other Hollywood sex symbols to the present, and Bollywood similarly is known for its objectification of women, especially in modern productions, Hindustani Times asks, "Is Bollywood Objectifying Men Now?" noting numerous popular and current Bollywood movies giving equal body eye candy time to male Bollywood stars.
In the same way that Hollywood has become a way of life for Westerners, Bollywood is an even greater part of the daily lives of those from an Asian-Indian background. About 14 million persons in India go to the cinema daily according to the BBC.
Music and dance scenes are an essential element of this escapist genre of film-making that has come to be known as Bollywood. While musicals were popular in Hollywood during the 1940s through the 1960s, the musical-dance elements of Bollywood movies remain standard.
Movies and Pseudo-spirituality
Fantasy movies that are laced with a form of spirituality can beckon the spiritual side of our hearts to join with the light or dark side of the force, as it were. A teenager who is just beginning to explore the world of spirituality, can just as easily bond with The Two Towers of Tolkien, with his magic rings and mythology, as he can with The Bible, Torah, or Koran.
The Star Wars fantasy, similar to Tolkien's trilogy of mythologically spiritual books, is laced with a spirituality that can prove to be fascinating. In much the same way, male inner city teens discuss the finer points of Bruce Wayne's double-life in the Batman fantasy, with serious contemplation, and difficulty for an observer to discern whether the conversation is about a real person or fictional character.
Star Wars is like a religion within itself, "The Force" parallels the Christian "Holy Spirit" in guiding the heroes in their conquest over evil. The supremely cute warrior-teacher Yoda, is master of the religion of the good-side of The Force. More than a teacher, Yoda is a type of priest who guides the young Luke Skywalker on his sacred mission in the fight against the evil.
In the book, Catching Light: Looking for God in the Movies, author Roy M. Anker comments on "what turns out to be quite the spiritual journey" when Luke Skywalker meets Jedi knight, Obi-Wan Kenob, as noted in Christianity Today. Joel Hodge, a lecturer in Theology at Australian Catholic University, develops the idea of spirituality in Star Wars in the article, How 'Star Wars' answers our biggest religious questions: The movies take on -- and subvert -- Christian themes.
Hodge refers to Star Wars as "a rich, imaginative world of which one can become part", and that producer George Lucas's stated purpose was to "create a mythology that could provide moral guidance within the context of a renewed sense of spirituality and transcendence." For young people Lucas endeavored to awaken a certain kind of spirituality.
Describing himself as a "Buddhist Methodist", both Christian and Eastern religious influence is notable in the Star Wars movies. For many young people, their deepest attachment to any type of spirituality is through questions (and answers) aroused through movies. They do walk away with lessons that may stay with them for life.
Darth Vadar turns out to be a powerful Judas Iscariot-like character who has given in to the "dark side of The Force", turning out to be Luke's own father, but who continues to work loyally now for his new evil cause. Luke doesn't succumb to his father's attempt to woo him to the Dark Side, even as the master of the Dark Side of the Force, the supremely evil "Emperor", who theologian Joel Hodge refers to as "Satan", evil to the core, unlike Darth Vadar whose evil is tempered by certain misgivings, and who is controlled through terror by The Emperor.
The fantasy Star Wars, then, owes its popular appeal to a mixture of swashbuckling action, science fiction mystery, life and death terror, as well as a religious sub-theme which captures our hearts and imagination, with our desire to delve into the unknown and search for deeper meaning than our day to day, sometimes mundane, existence. It taps into our yearning for a higher purpose. Maybe there is a Luke Skywalker in all of us yet to be released.
Because adolescents often lack a solid foundation in spirituality, or are still groping for the spiritual side of life that they will carry with them through adulthood, movies can become a source of spiritual ponderance, a unique format of confusing boundaries between fantasy and reality. Pseudo-religion may being to form the basis of their questions about life, their ideas about life's purpose, about the spiritual world, and their connection to it. That "it's just a movie" doesn't really factor into the final product in the mind of a teenager or child.
Movies which offer spiritual enlightenment, or pseudo-spiritual themes, are imbibed by the youngest of children. Disney's "Lion King" is one example of a children's movie with a distinct religious character, embracing the animistic spirit world of the African tribe-peoples which inhabit East Africa. The father lion of the Lion King movie dies in a tragic accident, but his spirit lives on and guides his lion-son, eventually reaching immense and benevolent god-like proportions.
"Lion King," like many Disney classic movies, exploits separation anxiety as an emotional hook. As reflected in the movie's advertising and bnd the movies primary purpose of entertaining, spiritual subthemes including the immortal soul and African animism raise questions of life and death in the minds of children.
Movies may be assimilated on different levels. Some individuals may watch movies somewhat objectively, analytically, from a distance, skeptically or passively. For others, deep emotionally bonding and personal identity with films and film characters can leave a deep impression on one's persona. This can true of adults, teens, and children. Girls can especially become emotionally bonded to movie characters. Movies can have a deep impact on the personality and subconscious of those who tend to internalize the plots and bond with the characters.
While some might view a movie in the same way that some might look at fireworks, others become deeply involved, disturbed or enraptured, and it is for these types of persons that movies have the greatest emotional impact and for some movies may be a contributing factor in mood disorders, other mental health disorders, or even autism spectrum disorders.
Children's Movies, Separation Anxiety, and Childhood Depression
For some children, G-rated movies, designed for children, can contribute to depression or anxiety. Disney makes ample use of emotional ploys such as separation anxiety to capture children's interest. Every child may have a tinge of fear of being separated from their parents. Every child experiences a bit of separation anxiety on their first day of school, some more so than others. Disney movies make a business out of capturing the heart of children's worst fear, and then gently putting them back to safety.
Intense emotions, endearing characters, coupled with cartoon violence that are the backbone of the most popular children's movies, open and close the heart emotions of a child.
Children's movies such as Bambi, Dumbo, Pinocchio, Lion King, Wizard of Oz, and many others, are noted for emotional scenes and separation anxiety. Children's anxiety levels rise and fall with each scene, and linger on in the child's minds for months and even years to come. One viewer of the Wizard of Oz recalls, "That old witch scared me so much that I had recurring nightmares" for a month after seeing the film each time. "I would awake screaming and crying" (Prince, S. p.65).
|Classic children's movies psychological impact: Wizard of Oz, 1939. Intense scenes and characters of neighbors who became enemies can be confusing to children. (Neubauer, P., Ph.D.)
Peter Neubauer, a child psychiatrist and prolific author, felt that disturbing images in films such as the Wizard of Oz, were especially intense on the emotions of children, and felt that children without stable family lives were especially destabilized by the imagery of this and similar films.
One producer of educational films, Maureen Gaffney of the Media Center for Children stated in 1981 "It has been my experience that the three films which have always frightened children most are 'The Wizard of Oz', 'Bambi' and 'Snow White'. They see the wicked witch as an evil mother figure and the Wizard as a neglectful and threatening father figure. She is not particularly against children watching horror movies, but bemoans the lack of content, describing them as "pure sensation"
Not that children are the only ones who can be deeply touched by a poignant film. Richly emotional or disturbing films are longer than one-half TV programs, and just long enough to develop characters that we become emotionally bonded to. Even for adults it can be difficult to separate the emotional elements separating reality and fantasy or fiction.
Some children can take in much violence on the television and movies
, with apparently little outward effect. For others, the slightest amount of violence can be overwhelming. Additionally, it is possible that years of watching violence can weaken the emotional and even physical structure of the mind and its delicate brain cells and chemical balance, which can contribute towards being susceptible to emotional or psychological disorders later in life.
Children who don't learn to cope emotionally as they reach teen years, can find themselves retreating into NeverNeverLand of moviedom as a life-habit as they venture into adulthood and even into old age, rather than learning to face problems and deal with them successfully. The plethora of fantasy films from childhood until adulthood as a way of life, becomes a safe emotional retreat from even life's most serious problems.
Some of the most enculturalized movies mentioned such Bambi and Dumbo, even Pinocchio, have been described in terms of "horror movies for children". "Disney had the most cunning formula, create the highest illustrative art to make horror movies for children," commented Newsweek.
Other movies such as the Disney Princess Films such as Beauty and the Beast, Cinderella, Snow White and The Littlest Mermaid, along with Barbie Princess movies, are also noted to have a deep psychological impact on children, especially girls, and may provide the psychological foundation for future eating disorders
or marital disenchantment, as the Prince Charmings of fantasy become a bit toad-like after years of marriage and the banality of day-today survival. Do years of subliminal indoctrination of little girls watching Princess movies contribute to what New York therapist Colette Dowling described in her 1981 book, "Cinderella Complex"?
Additionally, the innocent "sexual purity" of Cinderella and Snow White turns "girly girl" pink "hot, sexy pink" as time progresses, from "Someday My Prince Will Come" to "Oops! I Did It Again," in film and music notes psychology professor Sharon Lamb of Saint Michael’s College, as Peggy Orenstein elaborates on in "What's Wrong With Cinderella?" (Orenstein, P. 2006, December 24).
Like the "Wizard of Oz," some young children have difficulty digesting the horror scenes of classic Disney films. One Newark, NJ first grader attending South Street Elementary School in Newark, NJ complained of "nightmares" after watching "Snow White," as one example. Some children are more sensitive than others and adults need to be careful to explain to children that these are fantasies, they are not real, and provide emotional and psychological support for children if they are watching scenes of movies that may be scary to them.
While in decades past,going to the movies was something you might do monthly or at most weekly, since the VCR started to become popular in the late 1970s into the 80s, watching movies on a daily basis has become a way of life for many. A non uncommon scenario for a teenage girl is to watch eight movies in one weekend, as a high school Freshman commented on the way she spent a typical weekend (Newark, NJ. 2014).
Patterns of thinking and emotion are established. The emotional fiber of some children, especially those with poor family structure, can be eroded, subsequently contributing to mental health difficulties later in childhood or as teens
and adults; it can weaken the fiber of children
or teens. When a minor or major tragedy occurs in the child's life, with the outcome so very different from the knight-in-shining-armor victory that they have become accustomed to seeing, their life turn out to be the antithesis of that idealistic fantasy, and some children or teens might more easily give in to suicidal despair.
Some clinical studies have established a link with excesses in such programming and childhood depression.
The noted Austrian child psychologist Dr. Peter B. Neubauer who raised the alarm about violence on television and its potential effects on children, noted that for children who come from unstable backgrounds, broken homes, or single parent families, violent movies and TV can be particularly unsettling. The movie that he felt was most unsettling for children at that time was the Wizard of Oz because of its use of neighbors in roles of terror or in unsettling situations, the familiarity one develops with the main character Dorothy, linked with the tenseness and horror in some of the movie's scenes.
It is true that children from stable families might not be so affected by a movie like Wizard of Oz, espcially so today when children watch unsettling movies of pure violence, terror, or horror, still Wizard of Oz set a trend in grabbing children's attention with movies that exploited relationships of distrust and evil in contrast to childish innocence, in away that some young children of perhaps unstable backgrounds had a hard time grappling with emotionally.
, (March 3, 2008). New York Times
Some children suffer from nightmares from scary scenes in "scary movies" or children's movies. For young children, Disney horror or "scary" scenes such as that of the witch in Snow White, does invoke real nightmares.
The history and background of Peter Pan
Children, Violence, Sex, TV and Movies:
The entertainment that is available to children today in the form of TV
, movies and video games
, is exposing young children to violence and sex as never before.
The same could be said of common
that most children regularly watch. Many
as young as 1st grade are regularly watching
of the most grotesque and frightening kind. In some communities, up to 50% of children watch such programming. Many parents allow it, others watch when no one is at home, others watch with older brothers and sisters. Some of these children complain of nightmares.
Children and Education in Sex Through TV and Film
Around 30% of children and teenagers
are educated about sex through TV and movies. By the age of 17, 50% of teenagers have had sexual intercourse, and 9% have had intercourse before the age of 13.
Protecting children from potentially damaging negative effects of television and movies that might have is of utmost concern. One young teen candidly asked a teacher with confusion and concern, "What would happen if a women 'made it' with a dog?" She had seen it (not graphically, but within a broader story), in a TV movie, and it was troubling or disturbing to her.
Occult and Spiritistic Themes in Movies for Children
Nightmare on ElmStreet
Occult themes in film can also have an affect on children's psyche as these things linger on in the child's mind and worry them. The movies a child watches can make it difficult for them to concentrate in school and affect on a child's mental health. The Scooby Doo movie for children, as one example, can have a disturbing affect on sensitive children, with intense and long scenes of VooDoo chants.
At What Age do Children Discern Between Fantasy and Reality?
Children often do not discern the difference between fantasy and reality until they reach between 8 to 12 years of age. The Santa Claus fantasy doesn't fully get decoded by some children until they are in the fourth grade, about nine-years old.
It is difficult for most boys in Kindergarten to second grade to discern that Spiderman, and sometimes Superman, are fantasy and not reality, and usually they do not fully catch on until they reach about nine or ten years old. It is around that time that most children get a fuller grasp on the reality-fantasy concept, although some do so at an earlier age.
Education, Ethical and Responsible Teachers, Use of Movies in School
If a child watches movies, he should do so with a parent, and not alone, and the parent should use it as an opportunity to educate the child, explain concepts to him or her, and probe the child's mind to see how they feel about what they are watching; parents need to educate children in the concept of reality and fantasy.
If a teacher uses fantasy-genre movies in class, the teacher cannot take it for granted that the child can discern between reality and fantasy, but should teach children to discern the difference. This includes the most common household name films such as classic Disney movies
Teachers and paraprofessionals (e.g. teacher's aides) too often use films as baby sitters, time fillers, and rewards (rewards to both children, who get to watch a film, and for the teacher, who gets free time to do paperwork).
Rather, e ample space should be provided for films to be analyzed and decoded so that children and youth can gain insight into the subtleties of the use of film-making as a reflection of the ideas or ideals of the film-maker, or be able to use the film as a reference point in history, along with knowledge of the background that led to the film. This can prove to be a valuable critical thinking skill for youth
as they enter adulthood and start to develop their own value and belief system.
Passivity, Films and movies, and Causes of Depression
The passive nature
of the medium of television
itself, as well as the pastime of regularly watching movies, can lend itself well to the development of depression
. Watching films is a passive, rather than active form of entertainment. We do not entertain ourselves, but allow ourselves to be entertained.
How many children and teenagers complain, "I'm bored". One of the reasons so many feel bored is because they have become used to turning on the electric current in the form of video games, ipod-music
, TV and movies to entertain themselves, and without that extraneous artificial stimulation, there may be little that so captures their attention, interest, and imagination.
Watching movies is passive, rather than active, and all-in-all, as a way of life, can be considered to be a mind-dulling activity. Movies as a way of life is buying into a commercial system where the bottom line is profit, not substance. Deliberate efforts are made by directors to add elements of violence (including Disney cartoon movies
), and sex to capture the interest of the viewer and add to box-office receipts.
For some children, it is possible that fast-paced television, movies, and video games might contribute to the development of ADHD, along with other contributing factors. The amount of time that a child spends watching television
or other forms of the media in his or her early years is said to be directly proportional to the incidence of
later in life, according to some well-documented and controlled studies. (See CHADD website, under the section of clinical studies.)
Anxiety Disorders, Panic Attacks, Media Violence, Films and Movies.
in children may often be linked with television and movie habits. It can also have a link with adult anxiety disorders
and for some, can contribute to panic attacks
. In adults, a history of abuse or serious trauma raises the odds that one will suffer with anxiety disorders or depression
Watching movies of violence, horror, action and suspense, as a weekly or even daily habit, as a lifestyle, might contribute to added mental health difficulties, including contributing to a raised anxiety level, either in the present or future for many children, teens and adults.
Conclusion of the Psychology of Movies
------------Positive and Pro-Active Activities for Children, Teens and Adults
Violence in today's movies, including violent and horror movies that children as young as kindergarten view regularly are in the extreme category. Richard Gordon, who produced two Boris Karloff movies, and who continued to produce horror movies in later years feels that some movies (1982) had gone too far, became "overexplicit" with violence (Stein, E. 1982). Observing school children and high school students and the affect that violence and horror has on their psyche (Newark, NJ. 2007-2015) leads one to conclude the overindulgence in film can contribute to negative psychological consequences.
Art for children and adults is a better choice than violent or horror/scary movies as a way of life.
By replacing passive or mind and emotionally dulling activities with time spent in the outdoors or engaging regularly in such mind-strengthening activities as reading, creating artwork, learning a language, or learning to play a musical instrument
, it can do much to strengthen one's mind as well as the mind of a child, and help a child to develop self-respect, as well as to maintain emotional and mental balance.
, get outside, encourage your child to play, make sure he or she has good association, friends, is not isolated in his or her room all day. Make provisions for good recreation, ice skating, parks, sledding, art, association with other youngsters, costume parties. Keep your child active. Encourage him or her to read. Take him or her to the library. Read with your children.
is a good replacement for television, movies and
and is a natural mood stabilizer. In the classroom, many children prefer art to movies. In one 6th grade class, 75% of the children chose art
over movies. In one 1st Grade Class, 85% chose art over a popular children's movie, without prompting. Children enjoy art
, doing something with their hands and seeing the results of their work.
Additionally, there are a lot of well-made, entertaining nature films to purchase or download, that they are as entertaining as Disney
for kids. Parents and teachers need to swim upstream a little, put some thought into what they are giving their children for entertainment, and give thought to what they are putting regularly into their pwn minds as well, as it does affect mental health.
Rather than downloading NetFlix night after night, why not plan day trips to art and historical museums, both locally and out of state. Widen out your interests and tastes beyond the commercial-culture which is economically-driven rather than based on higher values. Movies and films do have a strong psychology and psychological impact on the mind and on the deepest emotions. How movies and films affect emotions should be a part of the study of child and adolescent psychology, child psychiatry, emotions psychology and abnormal psychology. It should also be considering to be a factor in mental health difficulties experienced by adults.
References for the Psychology of Movies
1. Anker, R. (2005, May 16) Star Wars Spirituality: Part 1. Christianity Today
2. Bambi. Time Magazine's Top 25 Horror Movies
3. Blake, S. "SITE OF THE NEW JERSEY SHARK ATTACKS OF 1916." Atlas Obscura
. Retrieved from the Internet December 6, 2015.
4. Bullen, A. Monsters And Demons: A Short History Of The Horror Film
, Astrid Bullen. Classic Movies - Everything for the Fan of Classic Hollywood.
Retrieved November 7, 2010. http://www.classicmovies.org/monsters-and-demons-a-short-history-of-the-horror-film/
5. Dowling, C. (1981, March 22). "THE CINDERELLA SYNDROME". New York Times Magazine
6. First Kiss in Cinematic History
. (April 11, 2010). Classic Movie Gab.
7. Falsafia, P., Khorashad, S., Khorashad, L. (2011). "Psychological Analysis of Alfred Hitchcock's Movies". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences; Volume 30, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.492. pp.2520–2524. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042811023172
8. Forgas, J., Moylan, S. (1987, December). After the Movies: Transient Mood and Social Judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. vol.13 no.4 p.467-477 http://psp.sagepub.com/content/13/4/467.abstract
9. Ganti, T. (2013). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema (Routledge Film Guidebooks) 2nd Edition
. New York: Routledge. (off-site link).
10. Hodge, J. (2015, April 21). "Star Wars offers enduring themes that appeal to our deepest selves." The Conversation
See also the reprint in the Washington Post article.
11. Kemper, T. (1990). Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions. New York: State University of New York Press.
12. Orenstein, P. (2006, December 24). What's Wrong With Cinderella
." New York Times Magazine
13. Prince, S. (2003). Classic Film Violence: Designing and Regulating Brutality in Hollywood Cinema 1930-1968
. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
14. Saawariya to Bajirao Mastani: Is Bollywood objectifying men now? (2015, December 20). Hindustan Times
. New Delhi.
15. Sharma, V. (2015, September 20). 'Masaan' and Other Indian Films Steer Away From Bollywood Escapism. New York Times - Movies section
16. Stein, E. (1982, July 9). Has Hollywood gone too far in depicting horror? Some psychologists see classics as most frightening to children
. Lakeland Ledger
17. What is Bollywood? BBC
Retrieved from the Internet December 31, 2015.
18. What made Jaws such an effective thriller? BBC Radio: Natural Histories
. Retrieved from the Internet December 6, 2015.
19. Wilson, K. "The Silent Era Of Horror Movies - Silent Horror: The Golem, Cabinet of Dr Caligari, Nosferatu"Horror Film History
. Retrieved from the Internet December 2012. http://www.horrorfilmhistory.com/index.php?pageID=1920s
20. Women in Early Film - Women On Screen: Roles for Women. The National Women's History Museum
. Retrieved from the Internet December 29, 2015. https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/film/18.html
21. Young, S. (2012, May 22). Movies and the Mind. The Psychology of Movies, Movie-Makers and Movie Viewers. Psychology Today Blog
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classic movies (and others) with a powerful emotional punch for children, (May 2, 2010). NewsVine
. (off-site link)
The Psychology of Movies & Movie Audiences
: A Bibliography of Materials in the UCB Library. Berkeley Library - University of California