Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, Gerald Corey, Marianne Schneider Corey, Patrick Callanan
What role do the therapist's personal values play in the counseling relationship? What ethical responsibilities and rights do clients and therapists have? And, what considerations are involved in adapting counseling practice to diverse client populations?
Psychology As a Major: Is It Right for Me and What Can I Do With My Degree? by Donna E. Schultheiss
Donna E. Palladino Schultheiss, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Counseling, Administration, Supervision, and Adult Learning at Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Beyond the Disease Model of Mental Disorders by Donald Kiesler
Kiesler's Beyond the Disease Model of Mental Disorder goes beyond recent volumes which argue that psychotropic medications are being overused and abused in contemporary mental health settings.
Elliott Valenstein, for example, an emeritus professor of psychology and neuroscience at the University of Michigan, recently argues that people should be highly suspicious of the claim that all mental illness is primarily a biochemical disorder. In his 1998 book, Blaming the Brain: The Truth about Drugs and Mental Health, Valenstein does not argue that drugs never work or that patients should discontinue taking medication. Valenstein's central point, instead, is that drugs do not attack the real cause of a disorder, since biochemical theories are an unproven hypothesis and probably a false one. Kiesler goes beyond that, and points out the obvious and some not so obvious flows in the medical model, and why it is not an accurate foundation for mental health diagnosis.
Living with Depression: why Biology and Biography Matter Along the Path to Hope and Healing by Debora Serani
This book "manages to explain depression in terms of human biology and experience without downplaying either aspect. Many times authors concentrate on one or the other, leaving the reader with the impression that only nature (or nurture) causes depression. These books then often purpose one type of solution (i.e. only medication or only talk therapy), leaving the reader only have-informed.
Living with Depression give[s] a truly holistic view of depression and its treatment, it gives it in an easily understandable format." The book also provides a discussion concerning stigma of those with mental health disorders. Review - NAMI Advocate, Fall 2011
Comfortably Numb: How Psychiatry Is Medicating a Nation, by Charles Barber
There is rampant overmedication of ordinary Americans through psychiatry. In 2006, 227 million antidepressant prescriptions were dispensed in the United States, more than any other class of medication; in that same year, the United States accounted for 66 percent of the global antidepressant market. He convincingly argues that without an industry to promote them, non-pharmaceutical approaches that could have the potential to help millions are tragically overlooked by a nation that sees drugs as an instant cure for all emotional difficulties.
|Page updated: November 27, 2012
Mental Health Professionals and Professional Therapies
--------------------------------------for Mental Health Disorders
Psychotherapy is defined as any form of treatment for a psychological or emotional disorder, in which a trained person establishes a relationship with one or several patients for the purpose of modifying or removing existing symptoms and promoting personality growth. Psychotherapy evolved from its origins in spiritual healing. Psychotherapy is practiced by psychologists and psychiatrists, but also may be, or is being, used by social workers in some settings, members of the treatment team which may consist of a psychiatrist, psychologist, and social worker. Others may also be involved such as a special education teacher and parent liaison, in an
educational setting. See here for more information on "What is Psychotherapy?"
Helen Smith, PhD. Photo: Helen Smith
All green links on this page are off-site links from sponsors and funds are used to support the non-profit activities of the AYCNP
Some Common Types of Psychotherapy
Interpersonal therapy IP involves discussion, sessions, communicating with a professional, usually a
psychologist, about the past or present events that may be contributing to mental health difficulties.
For some, open communication about such things past or present abuse, daily challenges and problems, or mental conflicts, is a necessary part of healing and coping.
IP can be effective for some in understanding themselves, as well as in organizing one's thoughts. It can also help some to unburden themselves of the past. Extended periods of Interpersonal therapy or other types of therapy may not necessary for everyone, but for many it is helpful.
Adolescents especially seem to benefit from IP, as it is supportive, and helps them develop a plan for recovery, many adolescents who are
suicidal make improvement with IP alone. An
educational psychologist is qualified for this type of therapy, and most public schools have access to an educational psychologist. Other types of psychologists can also be effectively skilled in IP. An effective therapist or psychologist will skillfully use questions to draw out the client, and try to guide his thoughts in practical and positive ways.
Pharmaceutical treatment without some form of therapy is both impractical and dangerous for both
adolescents and adults.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a common form of psychology that endeavors to help clients with mood disorders or mental health difficulties or disorders to change or correct negative or destructive thought patterns and behaviors and lead the client to more realistic and positive thought patterns.
It is one of the most effective forms of therapy that one can pursue, in that it endeavors to both change the thinking that might be leading to mental health disorders, as well as address behavioral patterns that may have developed which have been leading to such thought patterns. It is one of the few branches of psychology which is most conducive towards addressing lifestyle changes in addition to helping a client to develop positive thought patterns.
Psychoeducation basically refers to teaching or educating people about a mental health disorder or disorders and its treatment, as well as teaching clients how to recognize signs and symptoms of relapse. Psychoeducation should also include ideas on self help for good mental health.
Family therapy involves the entire family in the treatment plan. No individual is a single entity, an "island," as the expression goes. When the family is involved in the treatment plan and therapy, it has been found that the success ratio is much more likely to be positive. Family therapy, then is of value in dealing with a broad range of mental health disorders. If, for example, a wife is
depressed, it is very possible that there some aspect of the husbands life or habits that might be having an impact on her emotions. The same can be said for a
Group therapy involves discussions in a small group setting which are directed or moderated by a professional psychologist, therapist or
psychiatrist. For some it is of value to see that there are others who share common problems and can help to reduce self-stigma, and to find support, as well as to share ideas in coping. A support group is a little different, as it consists of groups who support each other in a non-professional context rather than necessarily including the moderation of a "p-doctor".
While some may benefit from or find support in group therapy, others may find it onerous or uncomfortable, so it is a matter of personal preference whether to include group therapy in one's treatment plan.
Art Therapy is a real branch of psychology which uses art as a professional therapy to help clients, both adults and children, to express themselves and find emotional healing and balance. Art therapists are board certified, therefore it is not considered to be an "alternative therapy," rather it is a fully accredited professional therapy and recommended option if one is seeking professional assistance. Art can be used in
self-help and is can be for many, a natural mood stabilizer and healer for the mind. However, in the context of this discussion it is mentioned as a professional therapy. It can be and is used in conjunction with Interpersonal Therapy.
The New Jersey Art Therapy Association describes art therapy as being, the therapeutic use of art making, within a professional relationship, by people who experience illness, trauma, or challenges in living, and by people who seek personal development. Through creating art and reflecting on the art products and processes, people can increase awareness of self and others, cope with symptoms, stress, and traumatic experiences; enhance cognitive abilities; reduce anxiety; improve social skills; aid reality orientation; increase self-esteem; and enjoy the life-affirming pleasures of making art.
See here for a more complete discussion of Art Therapy
See hre for how art can help children with ADHD.
Interpersonal along with social rhythm therapy: involves an effort to improve interpersonal relationships and in the case of social rhythm therapy to establish daily routines. Establishing daily routines can especially be helpful for those with
bipolar disorder, as it helps establish sleep patterns and a planned or structured routine helps protect against manic episodes. This can be true also for those with
OCD and other disorders.
Psychiatry is described as the branch of the medical profession that is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of metal disorders. The term psychiatry is derived from two Greek words meaning "mind healing". Until the 18th century, mental illness of disorder was most often seen as demonic possession, but it gradually came to be considered as a sickness requiring treatment. By the 19th century, research, classification, and treatment of disorders had gained momentum. Psychotherapy evolved from its origins in spiritual healing.
In modern practice, the branch of psychiatry which is most often employed is that based on the
medical model. The medical model refers to the method whereby psychiatric disorders are labeled, and in the majority of cases,
psychotropic drugs are then prescribed.
The medical model of interpreting mental health disorders has been proven to be woefully inadequate. Yet, it is still the most widely used model in mental health, partly because of its simplicity and convenience. Other models of mental health such as
Urie Bronfenbrenner's, Bioecological Model
are much more complete in their description of mental health disorders.
In the United States, only psychiatrists, medical doctors, pediatricians can prescribe psychotropic drugs. Psychologists are not licensed to prescribed medications.
While there are other types of psychiatrists, such as those in research or who deal specifically with children's issues, for the vast majority of the public, the psychiatrist has become a medical doctor who is chiefly concerned with prescribing medications, and where various forms of therapy, usually Interpersonal Therapy, and Group Therapy, are used as a secondary consideration. At times, other forms of therapy are not used at all by some psychiatrists, or in very shallow way.
See here for a more complete discussion of
Psychoanalysis is a highly influential method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as "depth psychology".
The psychoanalytic movement originated in the meticulous clinical observations and formulations of the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, who coined the term. Free association which involves the client talking about whatever comes to his or her mind, is one method of therapy in psychoanalysis. From Freud's experience as a psychiatrist, he found that most cases of anxiety and neuroses stemmed from unresolved conflicts that were a result sexual experiences when young. Therefore, his method and theory did give emphasis to this aspect of human psychology. Freud developed the concepts of the id, ego and superego. Psychoanalysis developed the concepts of unresolved conflicts in the subconscious, that needed to come out and be resolved. Dream analysis is another aspect of psychoanalysis that Freud developed, having written a book on interpreting dreams. This might still be an aspect of psychoanalysis in modern practice.
Psychoanalysis typically requires years of therapy, whereas other therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy, might find resolution within a period of weeks of months. Psychoanalysis is not the most dominant branch of psychiatry but it is still commonly practiced.
See here for a more complete information about psychoanalysis.
Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology. About 34 percent of psychologists are self-employed. In 2006 there were 152,000 clinical, counseling or school psychologists in the United States.
Clinical psychologists, who constitute the largest specialty, work most often in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally distressed clients adjust to life and may assist medical and surgical patients in dealing with illnesses or injuries. Some clinical psychologists work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, or neurological conditions. Others help people deal with personal crisis, such as divorce or the death of a loved one.
See here for a more complete information about psychologists.
Some types of physicians may, at times, become involved in mental health issues. Among these are, Primary Care doctors, family and general practitioners, and pediatrician. All are able to prescribed medication. With a visit to one of these types of doctors, MDs or DOs, a doctor might prescribe any number of medications for stress, depression, anxiety, ADHD, virtually all mental health problems. A complete discussion of possible side effects may or may not be considered. Follow up care may or may not be implemented.
So while such physicians are legally able to prescribe medications for mental health difficulties, it is often at this stage where there can be a huge gap in mental health care, confusion about medication, and inadequate follow up or cautions. While such MDs have a general education in mental health, they may not have a deep understanding into psychology and options in mental health care.
See here for a more complete discussion of physicians.
Pages Related to Mental Health Professionals
Physicians and mental health
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Types
Therapy Success - Honesty Promotes Healing
Appeal to Mental Health Professionals for access to professional mental health treatment facilities with the option of non-pharmaceutical treatment